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Full text of "Technical report for the city of Boiling Spring Lakes thoroughfare plan"

North Carolina Department of Transportation 
Office of Planning & Environmental 
Statewide Planning Branch 



Technical Report 
for the 




City of Boiling Spring Lakes 
Thoroughfare Plan 



2002 



N.C. DOCUMENTS 
CLEARINGHOUSE 

OCT 2 7 2004 

STATE LIBRARY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

RALEIGH 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/technicalreport2002nort 



Technical Report 

for the 

City of Boiling Spring Lakes 

Thoroughfare Plan 



Prepared by the 

Statewide Planning Branch 

North Carolina Department of Transportation 



In Cooperation with 
The Town of Shallotte 

The Federal Highway Administration 
U.S. Department of Transportation 



July, 04 



Persons Responsible for this Report: 

Project Engineer: Kimberly Drew Hinton 

Engineering Technician Reuben Crummy, 

Group Manager of Statewide Planning Branch: Daniel L. Thomas. P.E. 

Manager of Statewide Planning Branch: Mike Bruff. P.E. 



Table of Contents 



Table of Contents i 

Executive Summary 1 

Highlights of the 2002 Study Plan 1 

Chapter 1 Thoroughfare Plan for the City of Boiling Spring Lakes 7 

Urban Thoroughfare Classification 7 

2002 Thoroughfare Plan 8 

Purpose & Need Statements 8 

Major Thoroughfares 8 

NC87 8 

NC 133 9 

Boiling Spring Lakes Connectors 10 

West Boiling Spring Road Extension 10 

Boiling Spring Lakes (BSL) Parkway 10 

SR 1518 (Daw's Creek Road) 11 

Minor Thoroughfares 12 

SR 1541 Cougar Road Extensions 12 

Charlestown/Johnston Road Extension 12 

Drayton/Beech Road Extension 12 

Northern Crosstown Street 12 

Redwood Road Extension 12 

Public Involvement 12 

Chapter 2 Implementation of the Thoroughfare Plan 15 

State-Municipal Adoption of the Thoroughfare Plan 15 

Subdivision Controls 15 

Land Use Controls 15 

Zoning Ordinances 15 

Official Maps 16 

Development Reviews 17 

Funding Sources 18 

Capital Improvements Program 18 

Transportation Improvement Program 18 

Industrial Access Funds 19 

Small Urban Funds 19 

The North Carolina Highway Trust Fund Law 19 

Chapter 3 Existing and Projected Conditions 21 

Factors Affecting Transportation 21 

Population 21 

Economy 23 

Environmental Concerns 23 

Heritage 23 

Historic Sites 24 

Park Properties 24 



Endangered Species 24 

Occurrences 25 

Water Quality 25 

Wetlands 25 

Fish Nursery Areas 25 

High Quality Water 26 

National Wetlands Inventory 26 

Pollution Concerns 26 

Superfund 26 

Pollution Discharge 26 

Traffic 27 

Capacity, Width, and Alignment Deficiencies 27 

High Frequency Accident Profile 29 

Bridge Replacement Program 29 

Functionally Obsolete 30 

Structurally Deficient 30 

List of Tables 

Table 1 Population & Projections 22 

Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 22 

Table 3 Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 28 

Table 4 Minimum Tolerable Lane Widths 28 

Table 5 High Frequency Accident Profile 29 

Table 6 Structurally Deficient Bridges 31 



List of Figures 

Figure 1 Geographical Location 3 

Figure 2 2001 Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area Thoroughfare Plan 5 

Figure 3 Idealized Thoroughfare Plan 35 

Figure 4 Acquisition Map 37 

Figure 5 Environmental Concerns 39 

Figure 6 AADT Map 41 



Appendix 

Level of Service 

Cross Sections 

Street Inventory 

Listing of National Heritage Occurrences 

Comments from Public Forum 

Traffic Counts & Graphs 

Recommended Subdivision Ordinances 



Executive Summary 



The City of Boiling Spring Lakes located in southeastern Brunswick County was 
incorporated in 1961 and named the boiling spring that flows with an incredibly pure 
stream of water as shown in Figure 1 Geographical Location. The City has one major 
route, NC 87 that runs through it. The City of Boiling Spring Lakes is just minutes away 
from the North Carolina Coast. The city's centerpiece, the 150-acre "Big Lake", is just 
one of more than 50 natural and man-made lakes in the city. The "Big Lake" is fed by 
five springs and Allen's Creek, and is 2-1/2 miles long with 10 miles of shoreline. 
The city is mostly residential. The Reeves-Telecom Company originally owned and 
developed the city. Reeves-Telecom laid out the street and parcel network to start the 
city. 

This is the first thoroughfare plan for the City of Boiling Spring Lakes. With Brunswick 
County being the third fastest county in population growth. The city wanted to take a 
good look at its infrastructure to make sure they were able to grow smart. 

Highlights of the 2002 Study Plan 

1) West Boiling Spring Road Extension to SR 1500 Midway Road (BSL Connector) 

2) Boiling Spring Lakes (BSL) Parkway, NC 87 parallel route, (BSL Connector) 

3) NC 87 Improvements 

4) SR 1541 Cougar Road extensions to BSL Parkway and NC 133 

5) Drayton/Beech extension to NC 87 

The North Carolina Department of Transportation and the City of Boiling Spring Lakes 
are jointly responsible for the proposed thoroughfare improvements in the plan. Figure 2 
2001 Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area Thoroughfare Plan illustrates the plan. 
Cooperation between the State and local governmental unit is of primary concern. If 
right-of-ways are not protected through local ordinances for new roadway improvements, 
construction may prove to be cost prohibitive. Prior to construction of specific projects, a 
more detailed study may need to be required to reconsider development trends and to 
determine specific locations, environmental impacts and design requirements. 



Geographical Location for the 
Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area 



State of 
North Carolina 




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FIGURE 1 




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THOROUGHFARE PLAN 

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EXISTING PROPOSED 



MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
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ADOPTED BY: 



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STATEWIDE PLANNING 



NC DEFT OF TRANSPORTATION 
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JUNE 4,2002 



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THOROUGHFARE PLAN 

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MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
MINOR THOROUGHFARE 



ADOPTED BY: 



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FIGURE 2 



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1 2 



Chapter 1 
Thoroughfare Plan for the City of Boiling Spring Lakes 



A thoroughfare plan is intended to provide a highway system identifying existing and 
future improvements. Improvements could be widening a highway facility, building new 
facilities, or improving traffic operations. A number of engineering analyses are 
performed in designing a highway system. Some of these analyses include traffic, socio- 
economic and environmental. 

It is very important for urban areas to plan for their transportation infrastructure just like 
required planning for land use and water/sewer. Transportation is an important factor 
affecting a region's economic vitality. An adequate transportation system means people 
are reaching their destination safely and promptly, goods are being delivered in a cost 
effective manner, and investors will come to an area that is being serviced. 

Urban Thoroughfare Classification 

In the urban thoroughfare plan, elements are classified as major thoroughfares, minor 
thoroughfares, or local access streets. The major thoroughfares are the primary traffic 
arteries of the urban area providing for traffic movements within, around, and through the 
area. Minor thoroughfares are designed to collect traffic from the local access streets and 
carry it to the major thoroughfare system. Local access streets, which may be further 
classified as residential, commercial, or industrial streets, are designed only to provide 
access to abutting property. Due to the limited amount of detail that can be shown on a 
county thoroughfare plan, only urban major thoroughfares are shown. A generic urban 
thoroughfare plan is illustrated in Figure 3 in the Figures Section in the back of this 
report. 

Major thoroughfares are the principle traffic carriers of the urban area. Their function 
is to move intra-urban and inter-urban traffic. The streets, which comprise the major 
thoroughfare system, may also serve as access to abutting property: however, their 
primary function is to carry traffic. Too much access decreases the travel speed along the 
thoroughfare and causes "bottlenecks" which necessitates the need for traffic signals and 
hence reducing capacity of the facility. 

Minor thoroughfares serve the function of collecting local traffic from residential, 
commercial or industrial type areas and distributing it to the major thoroughfare system. 
They also may supplement the major thoroughfare system by carrying minor through 
traffic movements. Due to the land access type function, minor thoroughfares cannot 
accommodate large volumes of traffic. They are more of a collector-distributor system 
for the major thoroughfares. 

Urban radial-loop system is a coordinated system of major thoroughfares that is most 
adaptable to the desired lines of travel within an urban area. It also is reflected in most 



urban area thoroughfare plans. The radial-loop system includes radials, crosstowns, 
loops, and bypasses. Radial thoroughfares provide for travel from points outside to major 
destinations inside the urban area. Crosstown thoroughfares provide for traffic 
movements across the central area and around the central business district (CBD). Loop 
thoroughfares provide for lateral travel movements between suburban areas. Bypasses 
are designed to carry non-local traffic around and through the area. Occasionally, a 
bypass with low through traffic volumes can be designed to function as a portion of the 
urban loop. The City of Boiling Spring Lakes does not have a radial-loop system. 

2002 Thoroughfare Plan 

The recommended thoroughfare plan for the City of Boiling Spring Lakes shown in 
Figure 2 is the highway system that will serve anticipated traffic and land development 
needs. The highway system consists of major and minor thoroughfares. These 
recommendations are based on a capacity index given a Level of Service (LOS) C. 
Typically recommendations for urban areas are provided at LOS D. However Boiling 
Spring Lakes' traffic is at stable operating conditions. An explanation of level of service 
is in the Appendix. 

Purpose & Need Statements 

The purpose and need statement for a project clearly defines the need that exists in the 
area and the purpose the solution will serve. Some of the statements that follow provide 
a planninR level purpose and need based on systems level. Once thoroughfare projects 
move into the project planning stage, a more detailed project level purpose and need 
statement may need to be developed. 

Major Thoroughfares 

NC87 

Project Location: This is an existing facility extending from the north to south planning 

boundary in a northwest to southeast direction. 

Project Recommendation: NC 87 is recommended to be widened to a five lane cross 
section. It is presently a two lane facility with a center turn lane which runs just north of 
SR 1539 East Boiling Spring Lakes Road to SR 1541 Cougar Road. 

Transportation Demand: NC 87 is the main carrier of commuter and through trips. It is 
also the main thoroughfare in the city. 

Capacity: The estimated 2000 average daily traffic (ADT) ranging from 5,800 to 7,000 
vehicles per day (vpd). It is presently nearing capacity at LOS C: 9,000; LOS D: 16,500. 
Estimated 2025 ADT are 10,200 to 12,500 vpd. Truck traffic is moderately high at about 
10%. 

Social Demands/Economic Development: All commercial development is adjacent to 
this facility. The characteristics of this area is rural residential. The 2000 population is 
2,972 people. The Sunny Point Military Base is located at the intersection with NC 133. 



There are two schools at the intersection of SR 1541 Cougar Road. This area is 
congested during peak hours when school is in session. Approximately 8% of the ADT 
uses this intersection between 7:30am and 8:00 am during school hours. 

There is a proposed industrial site near the northern city limits on the east. There is also a 
proposed parks and recreation site between SR 1539 and SR 1541 on the west. 

Safety Issues: Safety is a number one concern for this community. NC 87 is the city's 
only major thoroughfare with a large percentage of truck traffic and the majority of traffic 
during peak school hours. This route is also designated for hurricane evacuation. 

System Linkage: NC 87 connects with US 17 north of the urban area. US 17 is a major 
arterial from New York to Florida. It also connects with NC 133, NC 21 1 and US 421 by 
way of Ferry in Southport south of the urban area. 

Relationship to Other Plans: NC 87 is classified as a Strahnet Route on the National 
Highway System (NHS) and as a minor arterial on the Functional Classification System 
(FC) and on the Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan map dated May 1 5, 2001 . At 
present NC 87 is the only arterial major or minor on the south of US 17 in Brunswick 
County. 

NHS provides for an interconnected system of highways to serve major population 
centers, major ports, major airports, intermodal transportation facilities, national defense 
needs, and interstate and inter-regional travel. NHS is the preeminent network of 
highways interconnecting rural and urban areas within the nation. The Strahnet system 
provides for national defense and emergency preparedness requirements. FC is the 
process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to 
the character of service they are intended to provide. FC is used for assessing the extent, 
conditions, and performance of the highway system; as a planning tool for needs 
assessments; apportionment of funds; and to establish jurisdictional responsibility. 

The Brunswick County Transportation plan study occurred between 1999 and 2001 . The 
County Board of Commissioners adopted the map on October 1, 2001 and the NCDOT 
Board of Transportation mutually adopted the map on November 8, 2001. 

NC133 

The recommendations for this facility include: 

• Widening from SR 1 2 1 (Old Bridge Road) at Belville to NC 2 1 1 west of Southport 
to a five-lane facility. This is also the regional recommendation. 

• Elevating the roadbed and installing large culverts on 100 feet south of River Road, 
and also 0.2 of a mile north of, SR 1521 (Funston Road). Transportation 
Improvement Program project TIP# B-31 16 should take this into consideration. 



Boiling Spring Lakes Connectors 

West Boiling Spring Road Extension 

Project Location: This is an existing and new location facility extending West 
Boiling Spring Road east from NC 87 with the intersection with SR 1539 East 
Boiling Spring Road to west at SR 1506 Lewis Road then tying in with SR 1500 
Midway Road. 

Project Recommendation: It is recommended on being a four-lane parkway 
facility with fully controlled access due to the Boiling Spring Lake Preserve. 

Transportation Demand: This corridor would be a carrier of commuter and 
through trips. 

Capacity: The estimated 2025 ADT is 10,500 vpd. Capacity at LOS C: 17,300 is 
sufficient. 

Social Demands/Economic Development: This corridor runs through the 
"Boiling Spring Lakes Preserve." The preserve is owned by the Department of 
Agriculture and managed by The Nature Conservancy. The preserve is the site of 
the "Forever Wild" campaign. This campaign is to save the last great places in 
North Carolina. From the beginning of talks with the DO A, the city made it clear 
that they desired a highway facility that extended from NC 87 to SR 1500. 

Safety Issues: Safety is a number one concern for this community. This route 
would help in hurricane evacuation. 

System Linkage: This facility connects to NC 87, which connects with US 17 
north of the urban area. US 17 is a major arterial from New York to Florida. 

Relationship to Other Plans: It is classified as a major collector on the 
Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan map dated May 15, 2001. The Brunswick 
County Transportation plan study occurred between 1999 and 2001 . The County 
Board of Commissioners adopted the map on October 1, 2001 and the NCDOT 
Board of Transportation mutually adopted the map on November 8, 2001. 

Boiling Spring Lakes (BSL) Parkway 

Project Location: This is a new location facility that runs parallel with NC 87. It 
extends northwest from the proposed Northern Crosstown Street southeast to the 
southern planning boundary ultimately connecting with the proposed NC 133 
Beach Road extension. 

Project Recommendation: It is recommended on being a four-lane parkway 
facility with fully controlled access due to the Boiling Spring Lake Preserve. 



10 



Transportation Demand: This corridor would be a carrier of commuter and 
through trips. The city wanted this facility because of the bypass effect. It would 
reduce congestion near the two schools at NC 87 and SR 1541 Cougar Road and 
help with hurricane evacuation. 

Capacity: The estimated 2025 ADT is 12,600 vpd. Capacity at LOS C: 17,300 is 
sufficient. 

Social Demands/Economic Development: This corridor runs through the 
"Boiling Spring Lakes Preserve." The preserve is owned by the Department of 
Agriculture and managed by The Nature Conservancy. The preserve is the site of 
the "Forever Wild" campaign. This campaign is to save the last great places in 
North Carolina. There is also a proposed parks and recreation site between SR 
1539 and SR 1541 on the west just south of West Boiling Spring Road. 

Safety Issues: Safety is a number one concern for this community. This route 
would help in hurricane evacuation. 

System Linkage: This facility connects to NC 87, which connects with US 1 7 
north of the urban area. US 17 is a major arterial from New York to Florida. 

Relationship to Other Plans: It is classified as a major collector on the 
Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan map dated May 1 5, 2001 . The Brunswick 
County Transportation plan study occurred between 1999 and 2001 . The County 
Board of Commissioners adopted the map on October 1, 2001 and the NCDOT 
Board of Transportation mutually adopted the map on November 8, 2001 . 

SR 1518 (Daw's Creek Road) 

It is recommended that this facility be upgraded to a four-lane parkway facility with turn 
bays. The pending International Paper Planned Unit Development (approximately 5,800 
acres) is currently in its planning stages. This development would generate large 
amounts of traffic. 

Safety Features: Elevate road and install large culverts under SR 1518 0.2 of a mile west 
ofNC 133. 

No Improvements are recommended for the following facilities: 

• SR1521FunstonRoad 

• SR 1 539 East Boiling Spring Road 

• Alton Lennon Drive/Eden Drive 

• Fifty Lakes Drive 



11 



Minor Thoroughfares 

SR 1541 Cougar Road Extensions 

This facility would extend to the BSL Parkway on the west and NC 133 ort the east. This 
would help alleviate some of the added congestion problems during peak hours while 
school is in session. 

Charlestown/Johnston Road Extension 

This facility would extend to NC 87. This facility is about 75% developed it would 
provide an alternate route for travelers. This would also help alleviate some of the added 
congestion problems during peak hours while school is in session. 

Drayton/Beech Road Extension 

This facility would extend to NC 87. The northern section of the city has an abundant 
local street network. It is also the area with the least amount of wetland concerns. As 
development increases an alternate route will be needed to carry travelers to major 
thoroughfares. 

Northern Crosstown Street 

This is a new location facility that would extend from Redwood Road to NC 87 at the 
proposed BSL Parkway. The northern section of the city has an abundant local street 
network. It is also the area with the least amount of wetland concerns. As development 
increases an alternate route will be needed to carry travelers to major thoroughfares. This 
is considered a long-range project. 

Redwood Road Extension 

This facility would extend to SR 1515 Old Mill Creek Road. The northern section of the 
city has an abundant local street network. It is also the area with the least amount of 
wetland concerns. The highest concentration of development is in the central portion of 
the city. This facility would provide an alternate route for accessing areas north of the 
city. 

No Improvements are recommended for the following facilities: 
Crystal Road 
East South Shore Drive 
Lexington Street 
Morehead Street 
Palmer Street 

Pine Lake Drive/Nassau Road 
Redwood Road 
Trevino Street 

Public Involvement 

There were several public involvement meetings during this study. Someone on the 
Board of Commissioners was usually present at the meetings. Lists of dates are below: 



12 



1) September 24, 2001 - Introduction Meeting - City Hall with Planning Board Chair 

2) November 13, 2001 - Initial Study Meeting - Planning Board 

3) February 12, 2002 - Progress Report - Planning Board 

4) April 9, 2002 - Capacity Deficiency - Planning Board 

5) May 2, 2002 - Public Forum 

6) June 4, 2002 - Public Hearing 

Public Forum 

There were eight people in attendance. Concerns raised were about stoplights needed at 

Cougar Road and Boiling Spring Lakes Rd, water/sewer concerns, and NC 133-bridge 

detour. 

Public Hearing 

There were approximately 20 people in attendance. Concerns raised were about 
stoplights needed at Cougar Road and Boiling Spring Lakes Rd, water/sewer concerns, 
NC 133-bridge detour and double tandem trucks using NC 87. Mayor Kinney compiled 
the list of concerns in a letter. See appendix for letter. 



13 



14 



Chapter 2 
Implementation of the Thoroughfare Plan 

Implementation is one of the most important aspects of the thoroughfare plan. Unless 
implementation is an integral part of this process, the effort and expense associated with 
developing the plan is lost. There are several tools available, but not limited to, assisting 
the City of Boiling Spring Lakes in the implementation of the thoroughfare plan. They 
are as follows: 

State-Municipal Adoption of the Thoroughfare Plan 

The City of Boiling Spring Lakes and the North Carolina Department of Transportation 
have mutually adopted the thoroughfare plan shown in Figure 2. The mutually approved 
plan may now serve as a guide for the mutual development of the road and highway 
system for the City. The approval of the plan by the City also enables standard road 
regulations and land use controls to be used effectively in the implementation of this 
plan. As part of the plan, the City and Department of Transportation shall reach 
agreement on the responsibilities for existing and proposed streets and highways. 
Facilities which are designated a State responsibility will be constructed and maintained 
by the Division of Highways. Facilities which are designated a municipal responsibility 
will be constructed and maintained by the municipality. 

Subdivision Controls 

Subdivision regulations require every subdivider to submit to the City Planning 
Commission a plan of any proposed subdivision. It also requires that subdivisions be 
constructed to certain standards. Through this process, it is possible to require the 
subdivision streets to conform to the thoroughfare plan and to reserve or protect 
necessary right-of-way for projected roads and highways that are to become a part of the 
thoroughfare plan. The construction of subdivision streets to adequate standards reduces 
maintenance costs and simplifies the transfer of streets to the State Highway System. The 
Appendix outlines the recommended subdivision design standards as they pertain to road 
construction. 

Land Use Controls 

Land use regulations are an important tool in that they regulate future land development 
and minimize undesirable development along roads and highways. The land use 
regulatory system can improve highway safety by requiring sufficient setbacks to provide 
for adequate sight distances and by requiring off-street parking. 

Zoning Ordinances 

Zoning is probably the single most commonly used legal device available for 
implementing a community's land-use plan. To paraphrase the U.S. Department of 
Commerce 1924 Standard Zoning Enabling Act, on which most present-day legislation is 
based, zoning may be defined as the division of a municipality (or other governmental 
unit) into districts, and the regulation within the districts of: 



15 



1 . The height and bulk of buildings and other structures, 

2. The area of a lot that may be occupied and the size of required open spaces, 

3. The density of population, and i 

4. The use of buildings and land for trade, industry, residence, or other purposes. 

The characteristic feature of the zoning ordinance that distinguishes it from most other 
regulations is that it differs from district to district, rather than being uniform throughout 
a city. Thus, a given area might be restricted to single-family residential development 
with minimum lot size requirements and setback provisions appropriate for development. 
In other areas, commercial or industrial development might be permitted, and regulations 
would be enacted to control such development. Building code provisions or sanitary 
regulations, on the other hand, normally apply to all buildings in a certain category 
regardless of where they may be situated within a city. 

The zoning ordinance does not regulate the design of streets, utility installation, the 
reservation or dedication of parks, street rights-of-way, school sites, and related matters. 
These are controlled by subdivision regulations or possibly by use of an official map. 
The zoning ordinance should however, be carefully coordinated with these and other 
control devices. 

Official Maps 

The roadway corridor official map (or official map) is a document, adopted by the 
legislative body of the community that pinpoints and preserves the location of proposed 
streets against encroachment. In effect, the official map serves notice on developers that 
the State or municipality intends to acquire certain specific property. The official map 
serves as a positive influence for sound development by reserving sites for public 
improvements in anticipation of actual need. 

The NCDOT position is that it will limit the use of official maps to large scale, fully 
access controlled facilities planned for rapidly developing areas outside of municipal 
jurisdictions. For projects within municipal jurisdictions, official maps should be 
prepared and adopted by the local government. Municipalities may adopt official maps 
that extend beyond its extraterritorial jurisdiction with approval from the Board of 
County Commissioners. It should be recognized that an official map places severe but 
temporary restrictions on private property rights. These restrictions are in the form of a 
prohibition, for up to three years, on the issuance of building permits or the approval of 
subdivisions on property lying within an official map alignment. The three-year 
reservation period begins with the request for development approval. This authority 
should be used carefully and only in cases where less restrictive powers are found to be 
ineffective. 

Requests for NCDOT to prepare and adopt an official map should be directed to the 
Manager of the Program Development Branch. For cities contemplating the adoption of 
an official map, there are two ways in which the city may proceed. The first is to 
consider the official map statute as a stand-alone authority and use it as the basis for local 



16 



adoption of an official map. Alternatively, the second approach is to adopt a local 
ordinance modeled after the statute, but modified to fit local circumstances and clarify the 
statute. Regardless of the approach taken, several procedural steps will need to be 
considered, such as establishing procedures for consideration of variance petitions. 

Once the project has been selected and the alignment determined, maps must be prepared 
that are suitable for filing with the County Register of Deeds Office. The map should 
show the proposed alignment in sufficient detail to identify the functional design and the 
preliminary right-of-way boundaries. Since the purpose of the map is to show the effect 
on properties along the project path, the existing property boundaries should be 
identified. As an additional requirement, within one year of the adoption of an official 
map, work must begin on an environmental impact study or preliminary engineering. 

It is important to recognize the risks inherent in the adoption of an official map prior to 
completing the environmental studies. Projects to be funded using any federal funds 
require the unbiased evaluation of alternate alignments. This means that other 
alternatives will be studied and compared to the protected alignment. 

The above information is only to serve as an introduction to official maps, and in no way 
provides the information necessary to begin development of an official map. The 
Program Development Branch of the North Carolina Department of Transportation is 
responsible for facilitating the adoption of Official Street Maps. Cities considering 
Official Street Map projects should contact this Branch for their "Guidelines for 
Municipalities Considering Adoption of Roadway Corridor Official Maps" 1 at: 

The Program Development Branch 

NC Department of Transportation 

1534 Mail Service Center 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1534 

Development Reviews 

Driveway access to a State-maintained street or highway is reviewed by the District 
Engineer's office and by the Traffic Engineering and Safety Branch of the North Carolina 
Department of Transportation. In addition, any development expected to generate large 
volumes of traffic (e.g., shopping centers, fast food restaurants, or large industries) may 
be comprehensively studied by staff from the Traffic Engineering and Safety Branch, 
Statewide Planning Branch, and/or Roadway Design Unit of NCDOT. If done at an early- 
stage, it is often possible to significantly improve the development's accessibility while 
preserving the integrity of the thoroughfare plan. 



1 "Guidelines for Municipalities Considering Adoption of Roadway Corridor Official 
Maps," prepared by NCDOT Program, Policy and Budget Branch. 



17 



Funding Sources 



Capital Improvements Program 

A capital improvement program makes it easier to build a planned thoroughfare 
system. This capital improvement program consists of two lists of projects. The 
first is a list of highway projects that are designated as a municipal responsibility 
and are to be implemented with municipal funds. The second is a list of local 
projects designated as state responsibility to be included in the Transportation 
Improvement Program. 

Transportation Improvement Program 

North Carolina's Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is a two year 
process. It is a document that lists all major construction projects the Department 
of Transportation plans for the next seven years. Similar to local Capital 
Improvement Program projects, TIP projects are matched with projected funding 
sources. When the TIP is updated, completed projects are removed, existing 
projects are evaluated, and new projects are added. 

During biennial TIP public hearings, municipalities request projects to be 
included in the TIP. A Board of Transportation (BOT) member reviews all of the 
project requests in a particular area, most commonly the division, of the state. 

Based on the technical feasibility, need, and available funding, the Board 
member, the Division Engineer, and NCDOT staff decides which projects will be 
included in the TIP. In addition to highway construction and widening, TIP funds 
are available for bridge replacement projects, highway safety projects, public 
transportation projects, railroad projects, and bicycle projects. 

It is very important that the local area keep the BOT member informed of the 
transportation needs in their area at all times. North Carolina's TIP process has 
modified from an annual process to a two-year process in the year 2000. This 
process extended the public comment period to one year. During this time local 
areas may provide comments concerning the Draft TIP to their assigned BOT 
member. Methods of procurement can be letters, meetings, and phone calls. 
Provide the BOT member with a current transportation plan report of your 
prospective area, any other traffic/land use plans or traffic analysis for your area, 
and a current list of transportation priorities. 

There is a great need for transportation improvements and not enough funding to 
fulfill all requests. The BOT member has the hard job of balancing all requests 
using safety, need, federal and state significance, and funding. 



18 



Industrial Access Funds 

If an industry wishes to develop property that does not have access to a state 
maintained highway and certain economic conditions are met, then funds may be 
made available for construction of an access road. 

Small Urban Funds 

Small Urban funds are annual discretionary funds made to municipalities with 
qualifying projects. The maximum amount is $300,000 per year per project. A 
city may have multiple projects. Requests for Small Urban Fund assistance 
should be directed to the appropriate Board of Transportation member and 
Division Engineer. 

The North Carolina Highway Trust Fund Law 

The Highway Trust Fund Law was established in 1989 as a 13.5-year plan with four 
major goals for North Carolina's roads and highways. These goals are: 

1. To complete the remaining 2,768 km (1,716 mi.) of four lane construction on the 
5800 km (3,600 mi.) North Carolina Intrastate System. 

2. To construct a multilane connector in Asheville and portions of multilane loops in 
Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Winston-Salem 

3. To supplement the secondary roads appropriation in order to pave, by 1999, 16,100 
km (10,000 mi.) of unpaved secondary roads carrying 50 or more vehicles per day, 
and all other unpaved secondary roads by 2006. 

4. To supplement the Powell Bill Program. 

For more information on the Highway Trust Fund Law, contact the Program 
Development Branch of the North Carolina Department of Transportation. 



19 



20 



Chapter 3 
Existing and Projected Conditions 



Factors Affecting Transportation 

Major factors influence the transportation needs and deficiencies of an area. These 
factors include population, economy, environmental concerns and traffic. Examining 
these factors help to explain historic travel patterns and project the groundwork for 
thoroughfare planning. 

In order to formulate an adequate future year thoroughfare plan, reliable forecasts of 
future travel characteristics must be achieved. Population, vehicle usage trends, economy 
and land use play a significant role in determining the transportation needs of the area. 
Additional items may include the effects of legal controls such as subdivision regulations 
and zoning ordinances, the availability of public utilities and the physical features of the 
area. 

The first step in the development of the thoroughfare plan is to define the planning period 
and area. The planning period is usually 25 years. The base year for Boiling Spring 
Lakes is 2000 and the future design year is 2025. The planning area is typically where 
urbanization is expected to occur during the planning period. 

Population 

Population is directly related to travel. The volume of traffic on any given section of 
roadway is closely related to the size and distribution of the population it serves. 
Therefore the analysis of past trends helps one to estimate future travel patterns based on 
population. 

The City of Boiling Spring Lakes is a small residential town just minutes away from the 
North Carolina Coast. Population trends and projections can be used as good indicators 
of what to expect with traffic growth in the future. 

Boiling Spring Lakes's population will steadily increase at a rate less than Brunswick 
County but almost twice that of the State. This would seem logical in that coastal regions 
attract high tourist volumes and is also an attractive area for people locating after 
retirement. • 

The most important population estimate for development of the thoroughfare plan is that 
of the planning area. The population for the urban area is the city population plus 10%. 
The state and county population estimates were obtained from the Office of State Budget 
and Management (OSBM). Then growth rate analysis was used to estimate the future 
year 2025 for the city and urban area. Census data was obtained for all other years. 



21 



Population growth rates for the city in the past ten, twenty and thirty years were 5.5%, 
7.7% and 10.7%. Therefore a moderate rate of 3% was used. It is possible for the 
population to increase as the "baby-boomers" begin to retire and relocate to the area. 





Popi 


ilation and 


Projections 


1 




Boiling Spr. 


Lk. 


Boiling Spr. 


Lk. 


Brunswick 


North 


Year 


City 




Urban Area 


County 


Carolina 


1970 


597 




— 




24223 


5,084,411 


1980 


680 




— 




35777 


5,880,095 


1990 


1073 




— 




50985 


6,632,448 


2000 


2972 




3269 




73692 


8,049,313 


2020 


5400 




5940 




113,402 


10,999,695 


2025 


8300 




9130 




122,160 


11,712,440 



Table 1 Population & Projections 

Similarly to population, vehicle registration helps to estimate future travel patterns. As 
vehicle registration grows and the person per vehicle decreases, this indicates a highly 
dependent vehicle area as shown in Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration 
Comparison. Information on vehicle registration provided the Division of Motor 
Vehicles is listed by county. Therefore Brunswick County information is used here to 
make the comparison. 1 The vehicle registration (taken from census data) projects future 
year data using trendline analysis. 



Year 


Vehicle Registration 


Brunswick 
Population 


PersonA/ehicle 


1970 


11653 


24223 


2.08 


1980 


23419 


35777 


1.53 


1990 


38691 


50985 


1.32 


2020 


78664 


102626 


1.30 


2025 


85423 


109316 


1.28 



Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 



22 



Brunswick County 
Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 




B Vehicle Registration ■ Population 



Economy 

The Town of Boiling Spring Lakes's has a very limited economic base. It is mostly 
comprised of single dwelling homes. A proposed business park along NC 87 has been set 
aside in the land use plans. 

Environmental Concerns 

In recent years, environmental considerations associated with highway construction have 
come to the forefront of the planning process. The evaluation of environmental concerns 
during a long-range transportation analysis is not only smart planning but shows 
dedication to preserve the environment. 

Legislation has been around for years, starting with the National Environmental Policy 
Act (NEPA) and continuing with TEA-21. However Section 102 of NEPA requires the 
execution of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for road projects with significant 
impact on the environment. Evaluation of environmental concerns before and during the 
perception of road projects in a long range transportation study or otherwise helps to 
minimize damage to the environment. Minimization is achieved through early 
recognition of sensitive areas. Some of these areas included water quality, historic 
properties, wildlife, and parks. This report provides an early evaluation of recorded 
environmental concerns and is not meant to contain detail necessary of an EIS. 

Heritage 

The Webster dictionary defines "Heritage" as property inherited or tradition passed down 
from proceeding generations. The use of heritage to describe the concern in this section 
is most appropriate. Heritage denotes a sense of pride and protection, which is why the 
following concerns are listed in the section. They are nationally Registered Historical 
Structures, National Heritage occurrence sites, Natural areas and Land & Water 
Conservation Fund areas. 



23 



Historic Sites 

Historic sites and districts that are listed in the National Register of Historic places or are 
significant as determined by the Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives 
and History were inventoried for the planning area. The federal government has issued 
guidelines requiring State Transportation Departments to make special efforts to preserve 
historic sites. In addition, the State of North Carolina has issued its own guidelines for 
the preservation of historic sites. These two pieces of legislation are described below: 

National Historic Preservation Act - Section 106 of this act requires the Department of 
Transportation to identify historic properties listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places and properties eligible to be listed. The Department must consider the impact of 
its road projects on these properties and consult with the Federal Advisory Council on 
Historic Preservation. 

NC General Statue 121 -12(a) - This statue requires the Department of Transportation to 
identify historic properties listed on the National Register, but not necessarily those 
eligible to be listed. The Department must consider impacts and consult with the North 
Carolina Historical Commission, but it is not bound by their decision. 

There are three Nationally Registered Historical Landmarks in the urban area. The 
National Registered Landmarks are as follows. 

1 . Brunswick Town Historic District, Boiling Spring Lakes Vicinity 

2. Orton Plantation, Boiling Spring Lake Vicinity 

3. St. Philip's Church Ruins, Historic Brunswick Town, Boiling Spring 
Lakes Vicinity 

Park Properties 

The location of publicly owned land for use as public parks, recreation areas, or 
wildlife/waterfowl refuges in Boiling Spring Lakes was investigated to determine the 
possible impacts of the various projects studied. The federal government has issued 
guidelines through Section 4(f) of NEPA requiring State Transportation Departments to 
make special efforts to preserve publicly owned lands used for recreational purposes. 
Minimal impacts will occur to some of the conservation areas where a new road will 
cross at a perpendicular angle or widening of an existing road that crosses the area. 

The Nature Conservancy is now developing the Boiling Spring Preserve. The Nature 
Conservancy is working as the management group for the North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture. Figure 4 shows the acquisition plans. 

Endangered Species 

A goal in transportation planning is to have an environment where all may live and dwell 
together in harmony. This does not only suggest people, but plants and animals as well. 
The Threatened and Endangered Species Act of 1973 allows the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service to impose measures on the Department of Transportation. These measures 
mitigate the environmental impacts of a highway project on endangered plants, animals, 



24 



and critical wildlife habitats. By locating rare species in the long range planning and 
project planning stage, impacts can be avoided or minimized. A detailed field 
investigation is therefore required prior to any construction." 

There is an enormous listing of National Heritage Occurrences in the urban area. 
National Heritage Occurrences is a listing of rare species, natural communities, geologic 
features, and special animal habitats. This information is complied from a variety of 
sources, including field survey, museums, literature, and personal communications. This 
listing of elements is maintained in the Biological and Conservation Database (BCD). 
The Nature Conservancy developed the methodology to create the database and they 
maintain it as well. 1 " 

Occurrences 

There are a total of 38 species listed in the NC National Heritage Program. Federal and 
State Laws protect species listed as endangered, threatened, and special concern (state 
law). There are 8 currently State listed endangered, threatened, and special concern 
species out of the total 38 occurrences. A listing of the species is in the Appendix. 
Figure 5 shows the multitude of occurrences throughout the urban area. 

Water Quality 

Wetlands 

In general terms, wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor in 
determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal 
communities living in the soil and on its surface. The single feature that most wetlands 
share is soil or substrata that is at least periodically saturated with or covered by water. 
Water creates severe physiological problems for all plants and animals except those that 
are adapted for life in it or in saturated soil. 

Wetlands are crucial ecosystems in our environment. They help regulate and maintain 
the hydrology of our river, lakes, and streams by slowly storing and releasing 
floodwaters. They help maintain the quality of our water by storing nutrients, reducing 
sediment loads, and reducing erosion. They are also critical to fish and wildlife 
populations. Wetlands provide an important habitat for about one third of the plant and 
animal species that are listed as endangered or threatened species. It is to no wonder why 
the Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area has such a large number of occurrences. 

The Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area has five springs and Allen's Creek flowing 
through the area. 

Fish Nursery Areas 

Brunswick County is part of the Coastal Area Management Act (CAMA). This act 
requires a permit for all land development or land disturbing activities within designated 
areas of environmental concern in the 20 coastal counties. This of course impacts 
development in the Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area. 



25 



High Quality Water 

High Quality Water (HQW) is water considered as having excellent (high) water quality 
or designated as an outstanding resource. Point and non-point source pollution 
management strategies are applicable to these waters. Coastal HQW streams have a 1/2- 
mile buffer generated. See Figure 5 Environmental Concerns for the HQW zones in 
the Boiling Spring Lakes Urban Area. lv 

National Wetlands Inventory 

In 1974, the US Fish and Wildlife Service directed its Office of Biological Services to 
conduct an inventory of the nation's wetlands. This National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 
became operational in 1977. Wetland delineation depicted on maps was produced by 
stereoscopically interpreting high altitude aerial photography. The National Wetlands 
Inventory is shown in Figure 5 Environmental Concerns/ 

Pollution Concerns 

Superfund 

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 
(CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 1 1 , 
1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided 
broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous 
substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Over five years, $1 .6 
billion was collected and the tax went to a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or 
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA: 

• established prohibitions and requirements concerning closed and abandoned 
hazardous waste sites; 

• provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at these 
sites; and 

• established a trust fund to provide for cleanup when no responsible party could be 
identified. 

The law authorizes two kinds of response actions: 

• Short-term removals, where actions may be taken to address releases or threatened 
releases requiring prompt response. 

• Long-term remedial response actions, that permanently and significantly reduce the 
dangers associated with releases or threats of releases of hazardous substances that 
are serious, but not immediately life threatening. These actions can be conducted 
only at sites listed on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL). 

Pollution Discharge 

The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Sites (NPDES) are establishments 
who have been given a permit to discharge wastewater into streams. 

Ground water recharge/discharge sites are recorded sites where possible contamination 
has occurred due to leaking storage tanks. The storage tanks may contain or have 



26 



contained some hazardous material such as petroleum products. Three of these locations 
appear in the planning area. 

Air Quality Pollution sites are recorded sites where possible release of contamination into 
the air has occurred. 

Pollution concerns are shown in Figure 5 Environmental Concerns. 



Traffic 

A comparison of average annual daily traffic volumes (ADT) from yearsl988 to 2000 on 
selected major roads and highways in the Boiling Spring Lakes urban area was analyzed 
using trendlines as shown in Figure 6. Also shown are projections for the years 2025, 
assuming no changes to the existing street system are made. These projections were 
based on historical and anticipated population and economic growth patterns and land use 
trends. 

Capacity, Width, and Alignment Deficiencies 

North Carolina's standard for highway construction calls for 1 1 foot lanes on all 
highways with traffic volumes greater than 2000 ADT (average daily traffic) or design 
speeds greater than 50 miles per hour. This includes all primary arterials. A minimum 
lane width of 9 feet can be tolerated on collector roads with an ADT of less than 400 
vehicles per day. The minimum level of service for minor collector roads dictates a 40 
mph design speed during peak traffic conditions. 

Design requirements for thoroughfares vary according to the desired capacity and level of 
service to be provided. Universal standards in the design of thoroughfares are not 
practical. Each road or highway section must be individually analyzed and its design 
requirements determined by the amount and type of projected traffic, existing capacity, 
desired level of service, and available right of way. 

The level of service is a function of the ease of movement experienced by motorists using 
the facility. (See Appendix for more information on Levels of Service.) The ability of a 
motorist to drive at a desired speed is dependent upon many factors. Included are the 
physical design of the road, the amount and character of traffic control devices, the 
influence and character of traffic generated by abutting property, and the imposed speed 
restrictions. The level of service is generally indicated by the overall travel speed 
experienced by traffic. Recommended minimum levels of service for roads and 
highways included in the Boiling Spring Lakes Thoroughfare Plan are given in the Table 
3. 



27 



Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 


Facility 


Overall Travel Speed 
During Peak Travel Conditions 


Major and Minor Arterials 

Major Collector Roads 

Minor Collector Roads 


50-55 MPH 

45-50 MPH 

40 MPH 



Table 3 Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 

For driver convenience, ease of operations, and safety, it would be desirable to widen all 
existing roads and highways to provide a minimum lane width of 12 feet. However, 
when considering overall statewide needs and the available highway revenue, it is found 
that these levels of improvement applied statewide would be impractical. Therefore, it is 
necessary to establish minimum tolerable widths for existing roads with respect to traffic 
demands that would be economically feasible. The widths used in determining the 
existing lane deficiencies in the county are given in Table 4. 

An analysis of roads in the Boiling Spring Lakes urban area determined. If the projected 
traffic (year 2025) exceeded the practical capacity at LOS C, it was anticipated that the 
following roads will be experiencing capacity or LOS C related problems within the 
design period. The projected volumes are shown in Figure 6. 

1 . NC 87 in the Boiling Spring Lakes area 

2. NC 133 from Wilmington to Southport 



Minimum Tolerable Lane Widths > 


in feet) 




Principal 


Minor 




AOT 


Arterials 


Arterials 


Collectors 


over 2000 


11 


11 


11 


400 - 2,000 


~ 


10 


10 


100 - 400 


— 


10 


9 


below 100 


— 


— 


9 



Table 4 Minimum Tolerable Lane Widths 



28 



There are a number of major roads in the County that have substandard widths. The 
standards established in Table 4 were used in the analysis. The width needed to bring 
these roads up to standard are given as the recommended cross section in the 
thoroughfare plan street inventory in the appendix. Because of the substantial cost of 
upgrading all secondary roads to standard, narrow widths may have to be tolerated until 
sufficient funds are available for improvements. 



High Frequency Accident Profile 

Traffic accident statistics are often used as an indicator for locating congestion problems. 
This data is reviewed to identify problem locations or deficiencies such as poor design, 
inadequate signing, ineffective parking, or poor sight distance. Accident patterns 
identified from analysis of accident data can lead to improvements that will reduce the 
number of accidents. 

The crash statistics have been generated and are available through North Carolina's Crash 
Database. This database provides an inventory of reported crashes on record that have 
occurred within the State of North Carolina. 

The Equivalent Property Damage Only Index (EPDO) is used to account for the severity 
of crashes. The EPDO Index gives injury crashes more weight than property damage 
only crashes. The Severity of Crashes is calculated by dividing the EPDO by the number 
of crashes. In general, the higher the severity index the more severe the accident. The 
severity index ranges from 0.0 to 20.0. 

This profile contains data for traffic accidents reported for the time period from 
December 31, 1997 through December 31, 2000. Note that many traffic accidents do go 
unreported for a variety of reasons, and this simply provides a list of occurrences reported 
accidents within 150 feet of the intersections. 



High Frequency Accident Profile 
in Boiling Spring Lakes 

For the Reporting Period of December 31, 1997 through December 31, 2000 



Intersection of 
Road A Road B 



Number of 
Reported 
Crashes 



Equivalent Property 

Damage Only 

Index 



Severity of 

the Reported 

Crashes 



NC87 
NC87 



SR 1539 
SR 1541 



4 
4 



3.00 
3.00 



.00 
.00 



Table 5 High Frequency Accident Profile 

Bridge Replacement Program 

Bridges are a vital and unique element of a highway system. First, they represent the 
highest unit investment of all elements of the system. Second, any inadequacy or 



29 



deficiency in a bridge reduces the value of the total investment. Third, a bridge presents 
the greatest opportunity of all potential highway failures for disruption of community 
welfare. Finally, and most importantly, a bridge represents the greatest opportunity of all 
highway failures for loss of life. For these reasons, it is imperative that bridges be 
constructed to the same design standards as the system of which they are a part. 

Congress enacted the National Bridge Inspection Program Standards on April 27, 1971, 
implementing the Federal Highway Act of 1968. These standards require that "all 
structures defined as bridges located on any of the Federal-Aid Highway Systems be 
inspected and the safe load carrying capacity computed at regular intervals, not to exceed 
two years." A sufficiency index number has been calculated for each bridge to establish 
eligibility and priority for replacement. The bridges with the highest priority are replaced 
as„Federal-Aid funds and State funds are made available. 

The Bridge Replacement Program puts $110 Million per year on average into a special 
fund for bridge replacement. The most critical bridges based on statewide needs are 
selected into this program, thus establishing a priority. To be eligible for Federal Bridge 
replacement funds, bridges must be classified as deficient with a sufficiency rating of less 
than 50. To qualify for rehabilitation, the sufficiency rating must be less than 80. 

The North Carolina DOT's Bridge Maintenance Unit, with assistance from various 
consultants, inspects all bridges on the State Highway System. All bridges in Boiling 
Spring Lakes have been analyzed, rated, appraised, and inventoried, and the resulting 
data has been reduced to a more readily useable form as a management tool. 

A sufficiency rating was used in the analysis to determine the deficiency of each bridge. 
The sufficiency rating is a method of evaluating factors that determine whether a bridge 
is sufficient to remain in service. Factors used include: structural adequacy and safety, 
serviceability and functional obsolescence, essentiality for public use, type of structure, 
and traffic safety features. The result of this method is a percentage in which 100 percent 
represents an entirely sufficient bridge and zero percent represents an entirely insufficient 
or deficient bridge. 

Functionally Obsolete 

Functionally Obsolete bridges can be narrow, have inadequate under-clearances, and 
have insufficient load capacity. They also can be poorly aligned with the roadway and 
can longer adequately service today's traffic. There are currently no functionally 
obsolete bridges in the Boiling Spring Lakes planning area. 

Structurally Deficient 

Structurally Deficient bridges are bridges with insufficient load-carrying capacity. The 
insufficient load capacity could be due to the original design or to deterioration. 

Table 6 shows structurally deficient bridges with sufficiency ratings of 1 00 percent or 
less. The locations of these bridges are on Figure 5 Environmental Concerns. 



30 



Structurally Deficient Bridges ir 


i Brunswick County 


Bridge # 


Facility - Feature 


Suffiency Rating 


TIP 


40 


SR 1515 -Mills Creek 


19.9% 




56 


NC 133 -Allen's Creek 


6.0% 


B-3116 


! Total 


2 




1 


5 Structural 


y Deficient Bridges 







31 



32 



FIGURES 



33 



34 



IDEALIZED THOROUGHFARE PLAN 




LEGEND 



EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
FREEWAY 

MAJOR OTHER 

MINOR THOROUGHFARE 

LOCAL ROAD 

INTERCHANGE 

GRADE SEPERATION 




o 



FIGURE 3 




LAND USES 

COMMERCIAL BUSINESS 

RESIDENTIAL 

INDUSTRIAL 

PUBI \C INSTITUTIONAL 



CV/J 



V 








X 



^ 



Acreage to be purchased 
Lots to be purchased 
Optional acreage for purchase 
Highway "frontage property 



FIGURE 4 



Boiling Spring Lakes Wetlands Complex 
Reeves-Telecom Acquisition 




Town of Boiling Spring Lakes 



Acreage to be purchased 
Lots to be purchased 
Optional acreage for purchase 
Highway frontage property 



FIGURE 4 




ivironmental Concerns 



Boiling Spring Lakes 



Legend 



Roads (DOT 24k - no attributes) 

A/ US17 

4 NPDES - Point Source Dischargers (24k) 

|> Superfund Pts. (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 

f£ Groundwater Incidents (100k) 
a Air Quality Pollution Discharge Points (24k) 
# Hist. Struct. -NR (Restricted-100k) 

Nat. Heritage Occurence Sites (Restricted-100k) 

Land & Water Consv. Fund (100k) 
Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Fish Nursery Areas (24k) 
' HQW Zones (100k) 
NWI (poly-24k) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
J\y Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 



N 



\\ 




FIGURE 5 




Environmental Concerns 

Boiling Spring Lakes 
Urban Area 
March 2002 



Legend 



Road 

A/ 

♦ 



A7 



(DOT 24k -no attributes) 
US 17 

NPDES - Point Source Dischargers (24k) 
Superfund Pts. (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 
Groundwater Incidents (100k) 
Air Quality Pollution Discharge Points (24k) 
Hist. Struct. -NR (Restricted-100k) 
Nat. Heritage Occurence Sites (Restricted-100k) 
j Land & Water Consv. Fund (100k) 
Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Fish Nursery Areas (24k) 
HQW Zones (100k) 
NWI (poly-24k) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro -Major Water Bodies (100k) 
Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 




FIGURE 5 




ANNUAL AVERAGE 
DAILY TRAFFIC MAP 



AADT 2025 



FIGURE 6 



BRUNSWICK COUNTY 



STATEWIDE PLANNING BRANCH 



APPENDIX 



Level of Service 

Cross Sections 

Street Inventory 

Listing of National Heritage Occurrences 

Comments from Public Forum 

Traffic Counts & Graphs 

Recommended Subdivision Ordinances 



Appendix (back) 



LEVEL OF SERVICE 



A good indication of the adequacy of the existing major street system is a 
comparison of the traffic volumes with the ability of the streets to move traffic freely at a 
desirable speed. The ability of a street to move traffic freely, safely, and efficiently with 
a minimum delay is controlled principally by the spacing of major devices utilized. Thus, 
the ability of a street to move traffic can be increased by restricting parking and turning 
movements, using proper sign and signal devices, and by the application of other traffic 
engineering techniques. 

Capacity is defined as the maximum number of vehicles that have a reasonable 
expectation of passing over a given section of a roadway in one direction, or in both 

directions, during a given period under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions. The 
relationship of traffic volumes to the capacity of the roadway will determine the level of 
service being provided. Six levels of service have been selected to identify the 
conditions existing under various speed and volume conditions on a highway or street. 

The six levels of service are illustrated in the figures following this section, and 
they are defined on the following page. The definitions are general and conceptual in 
nature, but may be applied to urban arterial levels of service. Levels of service for 
interrupted flow facilities vary widely in terms of both the user's perception of service 
quality and the operational variables used to describe them. Each chapter of the 1994 
Highway Capacity Manual contains more detailed descriptions of the levels of service as 
defined for each facility type. 



1 Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report 209, 1994, p. 3:7-1 1. 



1 . Level-of-service A describes primarily free flow operations at average travel 
speeds, usually about 90 percent of the free flow speed for the arterial class. 
Vehicles are completely unimpeded in their ability to maneuver within the traffic 
stream. Stopped delay at signalized intersections is minimal. 

2. Level-of-service B represents reasonable unimpeded operations at average travel 
speeds, usually about 70 percent of the free flow speed for the arterial class. The 
ability to maneuver within the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and stopped 
delays are not bothersome. Drivers are not generally subjected to appreciable 
tension. 

3. Level-of-service C represents stable operations. However, ability to maneuver and 
change lanes in midblock locations may be more restricted than in LOS B, and 
longer queues and/or adverse signal coordination may contribute to lower average 
travel speeds of about 50 percent of the average free flow speed for the arterial 
class. Motorists will experience an appreciable tension while driving. 

4. Level-of-service D borders on a range on which small increases in flow may cause 
substantial increases in approach delay and, hence, decreases in arterial speed. 
They may be due to adverse signal progression, inappropriate signal timing, high 
volumes, or some combination of these. Average travel speeds are about 40 
percent of free flow speed. 

5. Level-of-service E is characterized by significant approach delays and average 
travel speeds of one-third the free flow speed or lower. Such operations are caused 
by some combination of adverse progression, high signal density, extensive 
queuing at critical intersections, and inappropriate signal timing. 

6. Level-of-service F characterizes arterial flow at extremely low speeds below 
one-third to one-quarter of the free flow speed. Intersection congestion is likely at 
critical signalized locations, with high approach delays resulting. Adverse 
progression is frequently a contributor to this condition. 



Source: 1994 Highway Capacity Manual 




LOS A. 



LOS D. 




LOS B. 



LOS E. 




LOS C. 



LOS F. 



LEVELS OF SERVICE 



LOS (back) 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



Cross section requirements for thoroughfares vary according to the desired capacity and 
level of service to be provided. Universal standards in the design of thoroughfares are not 
practical. Each street section must be individually analyzed and its cross section 
requirements determined on the basis of amount and type of projected traffic, existing 
capacity, desired level of service, and available right-of-way. 

Typical cross section recommendations are shown in the figure following this section. 
These cross sections are typical for facilities on new location and where right-of-way 
constraints are not critical. For widening projects and urban projects with limited right- 
of-way, special cross sections should be developed that meet the needs of the project. 

Recommended typical cross sections for thoroughfares were derived on the basis of 
projected traffic, existing capacities, desirable levels of service, and available right- of- 
way. The recommended typical cross sections for the thoroughfares are given in this 
Appendix - Street Inventory. 

On all existing and proposed major thoroughfares delineated on the thoroughfare plan, 
adequate right-of-way should be protected or acquired for the ultimate cross sections. 
Ultimate desirable cross sections for each of the thoroughfares are listed in the this 
appendix. Recommendations for "ultimate" cross sections are provided for (1) 
thoroughfares which may require widening after the current planning period; (2) for 
thoroughfares which are borderline adequate and accelerated traffic growth could render 
them deficient; and (3) for thoroughfares where an urban curb and gutter cross section 
may be locally desirable because of urban development or redevelopment. 

Recommended design standards relating to maximum and minimum grades, minimum 
sight distances, maximum degree of curve and related super elevation, and other 
considerations for thoroughfares are given in the this appendix. This Appendix gives 
definitions and design standards recommended for inclusion in subdivision regulations. 

Cross sections "A M and "L" is typical for controlled access freeways. The 14 m (46 ft) 
grassed median is the minimum desirable median width, but there could be some 
variation from this depending upon design considerations. Right-of-way requirements 
would typically vary upward from 70 m (228 ft) depending upon cut and 



Cross section "B", seven lane curb and gutter, should not be used for new projects. 
When the conditions warrant six lanes, cross section "D" should be recommended. 
Cross section "B" should be used only in special situations such as when widening from 
a five lane section and right-of-way is limited. Even in these situations, consideration 
should be given to converting the center turn lane to a median so that cross section "D" 
is the final cross section. 

Cross section "C", five lane curb and gutter, is typical for major thoroughfares where 
frequent left turns are anticipated as a result of abutting development or frequent street 
intersections. 

Cross sections "D M , "E", and "M" are used on major thoroughfares where left turns 
and intersecting streets are not as frequent. Left turns would be restricted to a few 
selected intersections. The 4.9 m (16 ft) median is the minimum recommended for an 
urban boulevard type cross section. In most instances, monolithic construction should be 
utilized due to greater cost effectiveness, ease and speed of placement, and reduced future 
maintenance requirements. In special cases, grassed or landscaped medians may be used 
in urban areas. However, these types of medians result in greatly increased maintenance 
costs and an increased danger to maintenance personnel. Non-monolithic medians should 
only be recommended when the above concerns are addressed. 

Cross section "F" is recommended for urban boulevards or parkways to enhance the 
urban environment and to improve the compatibility of major thoroughfares with 
residential areas. A minimum median width of 7.3 m (24 ft) is recommended with 9.1 m 
(30 ft) being desirable. 

Typical cross section "G" is recommended for major thoroughfares where projected 
travel indicates a need for four travel lanes but traffic is not excessively high, left turning 
movements are light, and right-of-way is restricted. An additional left turn lane would 
probably be required at major intersections. This cross section should be used only if the 
above criteria is met. If right-of-way is not restricted, future strip development could take 
place and the inner lanes could become de facto left turn lanes. 

In urban environments, thoroughfares which are proposed to function as one-way traffic 
carriers would typically require cross section "H". Cross sections "I" and "J" are 

usually recommended for urban minor thoroughfares since these facilities usually serve 
both land service and traffic service functions. Cross section "I" would be used on 
those minor thoroughfares where parking on both sides is needed as a result of more 
intense development. 



Cross section "K" is used in rural areas or for staged construction of a wider multi-lane 
cross section. On some thoroughfares, projected traffic volumes may indicate that two 
travel lanes will adequately serve travel for a considerable period of time. For areas that 
are growing and future widening will be necessary, the full right-of-way of 30 m (100 ft) 
should be required. In some instances, local ordinances may not allow the full 30 m (100 
ft). In those cases, 21 m (70 ft) should be preserved with the understanding that the full 
30 m (100 ft) will be preserved by use of building setbacks and future street line 
ordinances. 

The urban curb and gutter cross sections all illustrate the sidewalk adjacent to the curb 
with a buffer or utility strip between the sidewalk and the minimum right-of-way line. 
This permits adequate setback for utility poles. If it is desired to move the sidewalk 
farther away from the street to provide additional separation for pedestrians or for 
aesthetic reasons, additional right-of-way must be provided to insure adequate setback for 
utility poles. 

The right-of-ways shown for the typical cross sections are the minimum rights-of-way 
required to contain the street, sidewalks, utilities, and drainage facilities. Cut and fill 
requirements may require either additional right-of-way or construction easements. 
Obtaining construction easements is becoming the more common practice for urban 
thoroughfare construction. 

If there is sufficient bicycle travel along the thoroughfare to justify a bicycle lane or 
bikeway, additional right-of-way may be required to contain the bicycle facilities. The 
North Carolina Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines should be consulted 
for design standards for bicycle facilities. Cross sections N, O, and P are typically used 
to accommodate bicycle travel. 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



-70m- 
228' 



i ///»/.W!/.V//>/ . >.'l?.WM,'.'f.</, * * > 




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variable 



FOUR LANES D1VI0ED WITH MEDIAN - FREEWAY 



B. 



1.5m 3.3m -M. I 3.3m -3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 3,6m I 3.3m -3.6m l 3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 36m I ji- 



lt' - 12' 



W - 12' I II' - 12' I II' - 12' ' Tr^T 



I 3.3m - 3,j 

1 11' - 12' 



II' - 12' I II' - i? 



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SEVEN LANES - CURB & CUTTER 



.75m 
1.5m I I 3. 



ii. 



fcn¥ 



-27m 
90' 



■6m I 3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m ■ 3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m I I 1.5. 



ir - 12' r ii' - 12 



AW/,'w;.',',y.',',vi', 



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FIVE LANES - CUR8 & CUTTER 



D. 







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^ 


1.5m' 


'5* 


3.3m - 3.6™ | 3.3m - 3.6m 1 3.3m - 3.6m 


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3.3m - 3.6m | 3.3m ■ 


3.6m | 3.3m - 3.6m ' 


75" 


l> 


- 


5' 


lA 


ir - 12' 1 11' • 12' 1 ir - 12' 


16 


11 - 12' < II' - 


12 1 II' - 12 


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5 


3 


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SIX LANES OlvlDEO WITH RAISEO MEDIAN • CURB 1 CUTTER 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



E. 
































<w- 








LSmJ 


75m ' 

1 3.3m - 3.6m 1 3.3™ - 3.6m 


4.1m 


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75m 

1.5m 




5' 


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11' - 12- 1 11' - 12' 


16' 


II' - 12' 1 11' - 12' 


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S.w. 


D 



FOUR LANES DIVIDED WITH RAISED MEDIAN - CURB & GUTTER 



F. 







28m to 33m 

S4' to 110- 








.75m 




7.3m - q.lm 




1 .75m 




1.}m 




3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m 


1.2m 


24' - 30' 


1.2m 


3.3m - 3.6m 1 3.3m - 3.6m 




1.5m 


V 


u 


II - - 12' 1 II' - 12' 


4' 


4' 


II' - 12' ' 11 - 12 


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5 


UTILITY 


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UTILITY 



FOUR LANES DIVIDED - BOULEVARD 
CRASS MEDIAN 



2T 



-21m 

70 



3.3m - 3.6m 3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m 3.3m ■ 3,6- 



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FOUR LANES • CURB & CUTTER 



H. 



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60' 



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THREE LAMES - CURB 1 GUTTER 



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70' 


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1.5m 




2.4m 


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1.5m 




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PARKING ON EACH SIDE 



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II' - 12' 



15" 



TWO LANES - CURB 1 CUTTER 
PARKING ON ONE SIDE 



K. 



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II' - \?- I II- - \?- 



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TWO LANES - PAVED SHOULDER 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



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SIX LANES DIVIDED WITH GRASS MEDIAN - FREEWAr 



M. 







41m 

134' 








.75m , 




.75m 




£ 


1.5m 




3.3m - 3.6m I 3.3m - 3.6m | 3.3m - 3.6m | 3.3m - 3.6m 


4.9m 


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1.5m 


£ 


s 


;.5 


II' - 12' 1 H" - 12' 1 11' - 12' 1 11' - 12' 


16' 


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EIGHT LANES D1VI0ED WITH RAISED MEDIAN • CURB S. GUTTER 

TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 
FOR ACCOMMODATING BICYCLES 

N. 







27m 






.75m 


1 .75m 




£ 


1.5m 




4.2m 


3.6m 


3.6m 1 3.6m 


4.2m 




1.5m 


^ 


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t>.5 


14' 


12' 


12' ' 12' 


14' 


2.5 


5 


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1 






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FIVE-LANE ROAOWAY WITH CURB & GUTTER. 
STANDARO INSIDE LANES J. WIOENED CURB LANES 




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TWO LANES • SHOULDER SECTION 



P. 



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27m 

w 

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FOUR LANES 01VIOE0 WITH RAISEO MEDIAN - CURB 4 CUTTER. 
STANOARO INSIDE LANES & WIDENED CURB LANES 



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Listing of National Heritage Occurrences 



Search Results: 38 records found. 



Picoides borealis Red-cockaded Woodpecker E 



Deirochelys 
reticularia 



Chicken Turtle 



Agalinis aphylla Scale-leaf Gerardia 



SR 



Regina rigida Glossy Crayfish Snake SR 

Sistrurus miliarius Pigmy Rattlesnake SR 
Sphagnum fitzgeraldii Fitzgerald's Peatmoss SR 



SR 



52 G3 Current - FUNSTON 

53 G5 Obscure - FUNSTON 

S2S3 G5 Historic - FUNSTON 

S3 G5 Historic - FUNSTON 

S2S3 G2G3 Obscure - FUNSTON 

S3 G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Amorpha georgiana var 
confusa 



Savanna Indigo-bush T FSC S2 G3T2 Current - FUNSTON 



Asclepias pedicellata Savanna Milkweed 



S2 G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Carex verrucosa Warty Sedge 



SR 



SI G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Cyperus lecontei Leconte ' s Flatsedge 



SR 



SI G4? Current - FUNSTON 



Dionaea muscipula Venus Flytrap 



C-SC FSC S3 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Eleocharis elongata Florida Spikerush 



SI G5? Current - FUNSTON 



Eupatorium 
leptophyllum 

Lachnocaulon 
beyrichianum 



Limesink Dog- fennel 



Southern Bogbutton SR 



SI G4G5 Current - FUNSTON 



S2S3 G2G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Ludwigia linifolia Flaxleaf Seedbox 



SR 



S2 G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Ludwigia suffruticosa Shrubby Seedbox 



SR 



S2 G5 Current - FUNSTON 



Lysimachia 
asperulifolia 



Rough-leaf Loosestrife E 



S3 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Myriophyllum laxum Loose Watermilfoil 



FSC SI G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Panicum tenerum 



Southeastern Panic Grass SR 



S3 G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Paspalum dissectum Mudbank Crown Grass SR 



SI G4? Current - FUNSTON 



Peltandra sagittif olia Spoonf lower 



SR 



S2S3 G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Platanthera integra Yellow F.ringeless Orchid T 



i 

SI G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Platanthera nivea Snowy Orchid 



SI G5 Historic - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Polygala hookeri Hooker's Milkwort 



S2 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Rhexia cubensis 



West Indies Meadow- 
beauty 



SR 



SI G4G5 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Rhynchospora breviseta Short -bristled Beaksedge C 



S2 G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Rhynchospora harperi Harper's Beaksedge 



SI G4? Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Rhynchospora pleiantha Coastal Beaksedge 



SI G2 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Rhynchospora 
scirpoides 



Long-beak Baldsedge SR 



S2 G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Scleria reticularis Netted Nutrush 



SR 



S2 G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Solidago pulchra Carolina Goldenrod 



FSC S3 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Xyris brevifolia 



Shortleaf Yellow-eyed- 
grass 



SR 



S2 G4G5 Current - FUNSTON 



Vascular 
Plant 



Xyris f labellif ormis 



Savanna Yellow-eyed- 
grass 



SI G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Natural 
Community 



Coastal Fringe 
Sandhill 



SI G3? Current - FUNSTON 



Natural 
Community 



Pine Savanna 



S2 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Natural 
Community 



Pond Pine Woodland 



S4 G4G5 Current - FUNSTON 



Natural 
Community 



Small Depression Pond 



S2 G3 Current - FUNSTON 



Natural 
Community 



Wet Pine Flatwoods 



S3 G3G4 Current - FUNSTON 



Comments from Public Forum 




City of Boiling Spring Lakes 

9 Boiling Spring Road 
Boiling Spring Lakes NC 28461 



910.845.2614 • Fax: 910.845.2040 • E-mail: cityhall@boilingspringlakes.com • Web page: www.boilingspringlakes.com 



May 6, 2002 



Ms. Kimberly D. Hinton 
Transportation Engineer 
NC Department of Transportation 
1 554 Mail Service Center 
Raleigh. NC 27699-1554 



Dear Ms. Hinton: 



Thank you so much for your presentation of the Boiling Spring Lakes Thoroughfare Plan at our 
public forum last Thursday night. We appreciate all the hard work you have done for us and we 
look forward to hearing from you as to the results of issues of concern we have. 

As a review, listed below are concerns brought up at the public forum: 

1 . Traffic lights at the intersections of Cougar Rd and Hwy 87 and Boiling Spring Rd and Hwy 

87. 

2. Removal of the green speed limit signs on Hwy 87 by the schools, which are not enforceable. 
Putting in speed limit signs for entering a school zone as the present speed limit is 55MPH. 

3. Turning corridors and road restriping at the intersections of Boiling Spring Rd and Hwy 87 
and Cougar Rd. And Hwy 87. 

4. Problem with additional traffic on Hwy 87 if Hwy 133 is closed due to bridge repairs or if 
temporary bridges are constructed. 

5. Double tandem trailers travelling down Hwy 87. Concern regarding contents of trailers 
coming and going to Sunny Point Military Terminal. 

6. Increase of traffic with proposed expansion of Sunny Point Military Terminal. 

Thanks you again for all your help and I will notify you when we approve our Thoroughfare Plan 
after we hold a public hearing in June. 



Sincerelv, 



(y Joan Kinney 
Mayor 



• 



COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS 
PUBLIC FORUM 



Please contact your local Division Office to request the need of traffic signals in your 
area. The North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) uses specified 
guidelines throughout the state that warrant if a traffic signal is needed at any 
intersection. 

The Municipal and School Transportation Assistance (MSTA) provides assistance 
through the performance of comprehensive transportation studies to North Carolina 
schools, state agencies, and municipalities under 50,000 in population that do not 
have a traffic engineering staff. Bowling Spring Lakes fits this criterion therefore can 
request a study to be conducted in the school zones. 

Please contact your local Division Office on traffic operation concerns. 

The bridge replacement is on a project development level handled by North Carolina 
Department of Transportation Project Development and Environment Analysis 
Branch. Please contact Bill Goodwin to assist with your concerns. 

North Carolina Administrative Code 19A:02E.0424 speaks to designated STAA 
routes and STAA dimensioned vehicles. An insert from the North Carolina STAA 
Network Map is attached in the Appendix for your review. For additional comments 
on STAA routes and increase traffic please contact Cindy Millikin with the North 
Carolina Department of Transportation. 



Traffic Counts & Graphs 




TRAFFIC COUNT 
LOCATION MAP 



LEGEND 



SPECIAL COUNTS 



BRUNSWICK COUNTY 
COUNTS 



BRUNSWICK COUNTY 



STATEWIDE PLANNING BRANCH 

m COOPBXATKM WTTH IK 

USJ1EPARJMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 
FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION 



SCALE: MILES 
1 



I I I ' i i i : 



HASEMAP DATE: 
APRIL 23,2002 




TRAFFIC COUNT 
LOCATION MAP 



LEGEND 



SPECIAL COUNTS 



BRUNSWICK COUNTY 
COUNTS 



BRUNSWICK COUNTY 



STATEWIDE PLANNING BRANCH 



SCALE: MILES 

1 2 





City of Boiling Spring Lakes 

Special Traffic Count Request 

2002 

Numberical Listing 






2025 Future 
Year ADT 


Station 


Route 


At or Near 


24-Hr Count 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


West Boiling Spring Road 
West Ridge Road 
Barclay St. 

West Boiling Spring Road 
Nassau Street 
Crystal Road 
Pine Road 
Cherry Road 


South of Bohemia St 
North of W. Boiling Spring Rd 
North of W. Boiling Spring Rd 
West of NC 87 
North of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
North of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
North of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
North of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
South of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
North of E. Boiling Spring Rd 
East of Alton Lennon Drive/RR 
Somewhere on Dam 
West of Alton Lennon Drive 
West of Alton Lennon Drive 
South of Forest Lake St 
South of Forest Lake St 
South of Forest Lake St 


68 

10 

120 

200 

158 

240 

450 

60 

1730 

1190 

1560 

1160 

160 

60 

160 

1150 

1151 

90 

1060 
380 
450 
640 
210 
770 

sRd 
request. 


3,053 
2,100 
2,753 
2,047 

2,029 
2,031 

1,870 

1,129 
1,359 


9 

10 
11 
12 


Pine Shore Road 

Alton Lennon Drive 

SR 1539 E. Boiling Spring Rd 

Alton Lennon Drive 


13 
14 
15 


Lisa St 

Forest Lake St 

East South Shore Drive 


16 
17 


Eden Drive 
Eden Drive 


18 


Springdale St 


South of Palmetto St 
East of Morehead St 


19 


Fifty Lakes Drive 


20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

**There 
and SR 

Growth 


Lexington St 

DixSt 

SR 1539 E.Boiling Spring Rd 

Goldsboro St 

East South Shore Drive 


South of Fifty Lakes Drive 

North of Cougar 

2000 feet North of Argonne St 

North of Cougar 

East of NC 87 


are only two SR's in this area. SR 1539 East Boiling Spring Lake 
1541 Cougar Rd. Cougar will have an Intersection Turning Move 

Rate of 2.5% used for future projections 







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law 



RECOMMENDED SUBDIVISION ORDINANCES 
AND DESIGN STANDARDS 



English equivalents are printed in this section as a guide. The English measurements are 
not meant to represent exact conversions, and should not be used for standards, 
regulations or construction. The tables in this section are taken from the Roadway 
Design Metric Design Manual , which should serve as the standard. 



RECOMMENDED SUBDIVISION ORDINANCES - Definitions 

Rural Roads 

Principal Arterial - A rural link in a highway system serving travel, and having 
characteristics indicative of substantial statewide or interstate travel and existing solely to 
serve traffic. This network would consist of Interstate routes and other routes designated 
as principal arterials. 

Minor Arterial - A rural roadway joining cities and larger towns and providing intra- 
state and inter-county service at relatively high overall travel speeds with minimum 
interference to through movement. 

Major Collector - A road which serves major intra-county travel corridors and traffic 
generators and provides access to the Arterial system. 

Minor Collector - A road which provides service to small local communities and traffic 
generators and provides access to the Major Collector system. 

Local Road - A road which serves primarily to provide access to adjacent land, over 
relatively short distances. 

Urban Streets 

Major Thoroughfares - Major thoroughfares consist of Inter-state, other freeway, 
expressway, or parkway roads, and major streets that provide for the expeditious 
movement of high volumes of traffic within and through urban areas. 

Minor Thoroughfares - Minor thoroughfares perform the function of collecting traffic 
from local access streets and carrying it to the major thoroughfare system. Minor 
thoroughfares may be used to supplement the major thoroughfare system by facilitating 
minor through traffic movements and may also serve abutting property. 

Local Street - A local street is any street not on a higher order urban system and serves 
primarily to provide direct access to abutting land. 



Ordinances & Design - 1 



Specific Type Rural or Urban Streets ( 

Freeway, expressway, or parkway - Divided multilane roadways designed to carry 
large volumes of traffic at this speeds. A freeway provides for continuous flow of 
vehicles with no direct access to abutting property and with access to selected crossroads 
only by way of interchanges. An expressway is a facility with full or partial control of 
access and generally with grade separations at major intersections. A parkway is for non- 
commercial traffic, with full or partial control of access. 

Residential Collector Street - A local street which serves as a connector street between 
local residential streets and the thoroughfare system. Residential collector streets 
typically collect traffic from 100 to 400 dwelling units. 

Local Residential Street - Cul-de-sacs, loop streets less than 760 meters (2500 ft.) in 
length, or streets less than 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in length that do not connect 
thoroughfares, or serve major traffic generators, and do not collect traffic from more than 
100 dwelling units. 

Cul-de-sac - A short street having only one end open to traffic and the other end being 
permanently terminated and a vehicular turn around provided. 

Frontage Road - A road that is parallel to a partial or full access controlled facility and 
provides access to adjacent land. 

Alley - A strip of land, owned publicly or privately, set aside primarily for vehicular 
service access to the back side of properties otherwise abutting on a street. 



Property 

Building Setback Line - A line parallel to the street in front of which no structure shall 
be erected. 

Easement - A grant by the property owner for use by the public, a corporation, or 
person(s), of a strip of land for a specific purpose. 

Lot - A portion of a subdivision, or any other parcel of land, which is intended as a unit 
for transfer of ownership or for development or both. (Also includes "plat" and 
"parcef'). 



Subdivision 

Subdivider - Any person, firm, corporation or official agent thereof, who subdivides or 
develops any land deemed to be a subdivision. 



Ordinances & Design - 2 



Subdivision - All divisions of a tract or parcel of land into two or more lots, building 
sites, or other divisions for the purpose, immediate or future, of sale or building 
development and all divisions of land involving the dedication of a new street or change 
in existing streets. The following shall not be included within this definition nor subject 
to these regulations: 

The combination or re-combination of portions of previously platted lots where the total 
number of lots is not increased and the resultant lots are equal to or exceed the standards 
contained herein the division of land into parcels greater than four hectares where no 
street right-of-way dedication is involved the public acquisition, by purchase, of strips of 
land for the widening or the opening of streets the division of a tract in single ownership 
whose entire area is no greater than 0.8 hectares into not more than three lots, where no 
street right-of-way dedication is involved and where the resultant lots are equal to or 
exceed the standards contained herein. 

Dedication - A gift, by the owner, of his property to another party without any 
compensation being given for the transfer. The dedication is made by written instrument 
and completed with an acceptance. 

Reservation - Reservation of land does not involve any transfer of property rights. It 
constitutes an obligation to keep property free from development for a stated period of 
time. 

DESIGN STANDARDS 

Streets and Roads 

The design of all roads within the Planning Area shall be in accordance with the accepted 
policies of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, as 
taken or modified from the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) 
manuals. 

The provision of street rights-of-way shall conform and meet the recommendations of the 
Thoroughfare Plan, as adopted. The proposed street layout shall be coordinated with the 
existing street system of the surrounding area. Normally the proposed streets should be 
the extension of existing streets if possible. 

Right-of-way Widths 

Right-of-way (ROW) widths shall not be less than the following and shall apply except in 
those cases where ROW requirements have been specifically set out in the Thoroughfare 
Plan. 



Ordinances & Design - 3 



Table 1 
Minimum Right-of-way Requirements 



Area Classification 


Functional Classification 


Minimum ROW 


RURAL 


Principle Arterial 


Freeways - 1 05 meters 
(350 ft.) Other - 60 meters 
(200 ft.) 




Minor Arterial 


30 meters (100 ft.) 




Major Collector 


30 meters (100 ft.) 




Minor Collector 


24 meters (80ft.) 




Local Road 


18 meters 1 (60 ft.) 


URBAN 


Major Thoroughfare 


27 meters (90 ft.) 




Minor Thoroughfare 


21 meters (70 ft.) 




Local Street 


18 meters 1 (60 ft.) 




Cul-de-sac 


variable 



The desirable minimum right-of-way (ROW) is 18 meters (60 ft.). If curb and gutter is 
provided, 15 meters (50 ft.) of ROW is adequate on local residential streets. 

" The ROW dimension will depend on radius used for vehicular turn around. Distance 
from edge of pavement of turn around to ROW should not be less than distance from 
edge of pavement to ROW on street approaching turn around. 



The subdivider will only be required to dedicate a maximum of 30 meters (100 ft.) of 
ROW. In cases where over 30 meters (100 ft.) of ROW is desired, the subdivider will be 
required only to reserve the amount in excess of 30 meters (100 ft.). On all cases in 
which ROW is sought for a fully controlled access facility, the subdivider will only be 
required to make a reservation. It is strongly recommended that subdivisions provide 
access to properties from internal streets, and that direct property access to major 
thoroughfares, principle and minor arterials, and major collectors be avoided. Direct 
property access to minor thoroughfares is also undesirable. 

A partial width ROW, not less than 18 meters (60 ft) in width, may be dedicated when 
adjoining undeveloped property that is owned or controlled by the subdivider; provided 
that the width of a partial dedication be such as to permit the installation of such facilities 
as may be necessary to serve abutting lots. When the said adjoining property is 
subdivided, the remainder of the full required ROW should be dedicated. 



Ordinances & Design - 4 



Street Widths 

Widths for street and road classifications other than local shall be as recommended by the 
Thoroughfare Plan. Width of local roads and streets shall be as follows: 



Local Residential - 

Curb and Gutter section - 7.8 meters (26 ft.), face to face of curb 
Shoulder section - 6 meters (20 ft.) to edge of pavement, 1 .2 meters (4 ft. 
shoulders 



for 



Residential Collector - 

Curb and Gutter section - 10.2 meters (34 ft.), face to face of curb 

Shoulder section - 6 meters (20 ft.) to edge of pavement, 1.8 meters (6 ft.) for 

shoulders 

Geometric Characteristics 

The standards outlined below shall apply to all subdivision streets proposed for addition 
to the State Highway System or Municipal Street System. In cases where a subdivision is 
sought adjacent to a proposed thoroughfare corridor, the requirements of dedication and 
reservation discussed under Right-of-Way shall apply. 

1 . Design Speed - The design speed for a roadway should be a minimum of 10 
km/h (5 mph) greater than the posted speed limit. The design speeds for 
subdivision type streets shall be: 

Table 2 
Design Speeds (metric) 



Facility Type 


Des irable(km/h) 


Minimum (km/h) 

Level Rolling 


Rural 






Arterial 


110 


100 80 


Minor Collector Roads 


100 


80 60 


(ADT > 2000) 






Local Roads 


80 


80 60 


(ADT >400) 






Urban 






Major Thoroughfares 


100 


60 60 


other than Freeway 






Minor Thoroughfares 


100 


50 50 


Local Street 


50 


50 30 



(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1 -IB) 



Ordinances & Design - 5 



Design Speeds (English) 



Facility Type 


Desirable(mph) 


Minimum (mph) 






Level 


Rolling 


Rural 








Arterial 


70 


60 


50 


Minor Collector Roads 


60 


50 


40 


(ADT > 2000) 








Local Roads* 


50 


50 


40 


Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 


60 


50 


40 


other than Freeway 








Minor Thoroughfares 


40 


30 


30 


Local Street** 


30 


30 


20 



* Based on ADT of 400-750. Where roads serve a limited area and small number of 
dwelling units, minimum speed may be reduced. 



** 



Based on projected ADT of 50 - 250 



Maximum and Minimum Grades 

The maximum grades in percent are shown below and the minimum grade should not be 
less than 0.5%. Grades for 30 meters (100 ft.) each way from intersections (measured 
from edge of pavement) should not exceed 5%. 



Ordinances & Design - 6 





Table 3 
Maximum Vertical Grade (metric) 




Facility Type and 
Design Speed (km/h) 


Maximum Grade in Percent 




Flat 


Rolling 


Mountainous 


Rural 








Minor Collector 1 








30 


7 


10 


12 


50 


7 


9 


10 


65 


7 


8 


10 


80 


6 


7 


9 


100 


5 


6 


8 


110 


4 


5 


6 


Local Roads' 








30 


- 


11 


16 


50 


7 


10 


14 


65 


7 


9 


12 


80 


6 


8 


10 


100 


5 


6 


- 


Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 








50 


8 


9 


11 


65 


7 


8 


10 


80 


6 


7 


9 


100 


5 


6 


8 


Minor Thoroughfares 1 








30 


9 


12 


14 


50 


9 


11 


12 


65 


9 


10 


12 


80 


7 


8 


10 


100 


6 


7 


9 


110 


5 


6 


7 


Local Streets' 








30 


- 


11 


16 


50 


7 


10 


14 


65, 


7 


9 


12 


80 


6 


8 


10 


100 


5 


6 


- 


' For streets and roads wit 


l projected annual ave 


;rage daily traffic less 


than 250 or short 



steep grades less than 150 meters (500 ft.) long, grades may be 2% steeper than the 
values in the table. 

(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-12 T-3) 



Ordinances & Design - 7 





Maximum Vertical Grade (English) 


« 


Facility Type and 


Maximum Grade in Percent 




Design Speed (mph) 








Flat Rolling 


Mountainous 


Rural 






Minor Collector 1 






20 


1 10 


12 


30 


7 9 


10 


40 


7 8 


10 


50 


6 7 


9 


60 


5 6 


8 


70 


4 5 


6 


Local Roads 1 






20 


11 


16 


30 


7 10 


14 


40 


7 9 


12 


50 


6 8 


10 


60 


5 6 


- 


Urban 






Major Thoroughfares 






other than Freeway 






30 


8 9 


11 


40 


7 8 


10 


50 


6 7 


9 


60 


5 6 


8 


Minor Thoroughfares' 






20 


9 12 


14 


30 


9 11 


12 


40 


9 10 


12 


50 


7 8 


10 


60 


6 7 


9 


70 


5 6 


7 


Local Streets 






20 


11 


16 


30 


7 10 


14 


40 


7 9 


12 


50 


6 8 


10 


60 


5 6 


- 



1 For streets and roads with projected annual average daily traffic less than 250 or short 
steep grades less than 150 meters (500 ft.) long, grades may be 2% steeper than the 
values in the table. 



Ordinances & Design - 8 



Minimum Sight Distance - In the interest of public safety, no less than the minimum 
sight distance applicable shall be provided. Vertical curves that connect each change in 
grade shall be provided and calculated using the parameters set forth as follows: 





Table 4 








Sight Distance 






Design Speed 


Stopping Sight Distance 


Minimum K 


Value 


(km/h) 


meters (feet) 








Minimum Desirable 


Crest Curve 


Sag Cun>e 


30 


30(100') 30(100') 


3 


4 


50 


60 (200') 70 (230') 


9 


11 


60 


80 (260') 90 (300') 


14 


15 


90 


140(460') 170(560') 


43 


30 


100 


160(530') 210(690') 


62 


37 



(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-12 T-l ) 

NOTE: General practice calls for vertical curves to be multiples of 10 meters. Calculated 
lengths shall be rounded up in each case. 

] K is a coefficient by which the algebraic difference in grade may be multiplied to 
determine the length in meters of the vertical curve that will provide the desired sight 
distance. Sight distance provided for stopped vehicles at intersections should be in 
accordance with "AASHTO, 1990". 

Superelevation - The superelevation table below shows the minimum radius and the 
related maximum superelevation for design speeds. The maximum rate of roadway 
superelevation (e) for rural roads with no curb and gutter is 0.08. The maximum rate of 
superelevation for urban streets with curb and gutter is 0.06, with 0.04 being desirable. 

Table 5 
Superelevation 



Design Speed 




Minimum Radius at Maximum e' 




(km/h) 










e=0.04 


e=0.06 


e=0.08 


50 


100 


90 


80 


65 


175 


160 


145 


80 


280 


250 


230 


100 


490 


435 


395 



e = rate of roadway superelevation, meter per meter 
(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-12 T-6 through T-8) 



Ordinances & Design - 9 



Intersections 

i 

1 . Streets shall be laid out so as to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles, 
and no street should intersect any other street at an angle less than sixth-five 
(65) degrees. 

2. Property lines at intersections should be set so that the distance from the edge 
of pavement, of the street turnout, to the property line will be at least as great 
as the distance from the edge of pavement to the property line along the 
intersecting streets. This property line can be established as a radius or as a 
sight triangle. Greater offsets from the edge of pavement to the property lines 
will be required, if necessary, to provide sight distance for the stopped vehicle 
on the side street. 

3. Offset intersections are to be avoided. A minimum length of 60 meters (200 
ft.) should separate intersections that cannot be aligned between survey 
centerlines. 

Cul-de-sacs 

Cul-de-sacs shall not be more than one hundred and fifty (150) meters (500 ft.) in length. 
The distance from the edge of pavement on the vehicular turn around to the right-of-way 
line should not be less than the distance from the edge of pavement to right-of-way line 
on the street approaching the turn around. Cul-de-sacs should not be used to avoid 
connection with an existing street or to avoid the extension of an important street. 

Alleys 

1 . Alleys shall be required to serve lots used for commercial and industrial 
purposes except that this requirement may be waived where other definite and 
assured provisions are made for service access. Alleys shall not be provided 
in residential subdivisions unless necessitated by unusual circumstances. 

2. The width of an alley shall be at least 6 meters (20 ft.). 

3. Dead-end alleys shall be avoided where possible, but if unavoidable, shall be 
provided with adequate turn around facilities at the dead-end as may be 
required by the Planning Board. 

Permits for Connection to State Roads 

An approved permit is required for connection to any existing state system road. This 
permit is required prior to any construction on the street or road. The application is 
available at the office of the District Engineer of the Division of Highways. 

Offsets to Utility Poles 



Ordinances & Design - 10 



Poles for overhead utilities should be located clear of roadway shoulders, preferably a 
minimum of at least 9 meters (30 ft.) from the edge of pavement. On streets with curb 
and gutter, utility poles shall be set back a minimum distance of 1 .8 meters (6 ft.) from 
the face of curb. 

Wheel Chair Ramps 

All street curbs being constructed or reconstructed for maintenance purposes, traffic 
operations, repairs, correction of utilities, or altered for any reason, shall provide 
wheelchair ramps for the physically handicapped at intersections where both curb and 
gutter and sidewalks are provided and at other major points of pedestrian flow. 

Horizontal Width on Bridge Deck 

1 . The clear roadway widths for new and reconstructed bridges serving 2 lane, 2 
way traffic should be as follows: 

Shoulder section approach 

under 800 ADT design year - minimum 8.4 meters (28 ft.)width face 
to face of parapets, rails, or pavement width plus 3 meters (10 ft.), 
whichever is greater 

800 - 2000 ADT design year - minimum 10.2 meters (34 ft.) width 
face to face of parapets, rails, or pavement width plus 3.6 meters (12 
ft.), whichever is greater 

over 2000 ADT design year - minimum width of 12 meters (40 ft.), 
desirable width of 13.2 meters (44 ft.) width face to face of parapets or 
rails 

Curb and gutter approach 

under 800 ADT design year - minimum 7.2 meters (24 ft.) face to face 
of curbs 

over 800 ADT design year - width of approach pavement measured 
face to face of curbs 

where curb and gutter sections are used on roadway approaches, curbs 
on bridges shall match the curbs on approaches in height, in width of 
face to face of curbs, and in crown drop. The distance from face of 
curb to face of parapet or rail shall be a minimum of 450 millimeters 
(1.5 ft.), or greater if sidewalks are required 



Ordinances & Design - 1 1 



2. The clear roadway widths for new and reconstructed bridges having 4 or more 
lanes serving undivided two-way traffic should be as follows: 

Shoulder section approach 

width of approach pavement plus width of usable shoulders on the 
approach left and right (shoulder width 2.4 meters (8 ft.) minimum, 3 
meters (10 ft.) desirable) 

Curb and gutter approach 

width of approach pavement measured face to face of curbs 



Ordinances & Design - 12 



I Brunswick County Transportation Plan, 2001, Kimberly Hinton, NCDOT-Statewide 
Planning Branch. 

II Plant Protection and Conservation Act, 1979, State of North Carolina. Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, as mended through the 100 th Congress, Federal Register, Volume 
56, Number 225, November 21, 1991 (50CFRPart 17). 

III NC Natural Heritage Program, NC Division of Parks and Recreation, Division of 
Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, February 1997. 

IV "High Quality Water and Outstanding Resource Water Management Zones", Division 
of Water Quality, http://cgia.cgia.state.nc.us/cgdb/hqorwdwq.html, October 13, 2001. 

v North Carolina Soil & Water Conservation, 
www.ehnr.stae.nc.us/DSWC/files/ntwetinv.htm 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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